Nell Irvin Painter – Structural Inequality

No one in St. Louis expected the Exodusters in March 1879.1 A modest Black politician, Charleton H. Tandy, found them first, and taking them in hand, he solicited aid from the Mullanphy Emigrant Relief Board. Administered by the city of St. Louis, the Mullanphy board was set up to aid migrants and immigrants on their way West, but it refused Tandy’s first request on behalf of the Exodusters. He finally wrung one hundred dollars from the board for the hundreds of Exodusters in the city.2

  • 1- St. Louis Globe-Democrat, March 13, 1879, Senate Report 693, III: 36.
  • 2- St. Louis Globe-Democrat, March 13, 1879. Tandy said that in the past, the board had allowed $300 to single white families. (St. Louis Globe-Democrat, March 21, 1879.)
  • P.225, Exodusters – Nell Irvin Painter, ISBN 0-393-00951-3
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