Nell Irvin Painter – Not Dissuaded by Anti-Black Violence

“The leading man among the whites was one Charlie Smith,” said the Exoduster, “and they killed one of the colored men and the other ran off; they killed him because he wanted to go to Kansas.” 41 Exodusters repeatedly reported incidents of this nature, but while they lamented the misfortunes of their comrades, they were not deterred from leaving. Similarly, Exodusters whose property was attached for trumped-up debts came away as property-less rather than remain in the South. One Exoduster said that his mules had been taken by a deputy sheriff and twenty-five armed men, but he nevertheless boarded the boat – ten miles below his original point of departure.42

  • 41 Thomas Carroll, Senate Report 693, III: 57
  • 42  George Halliday, quoted in Frank H. Fletcher, Negro Exodus, n.p., n.d. [Topeka, Kansas, April 1879] p.20
  • P.197, Exodusters – Nell Irvin Painter, ISBN 0-393-00951-3

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