Nell Irvin Painter – Acquiescent Regarding Anti-Black Violence

Blacks reacted immediately to the election “troubles” of 1878 by writing to Washington about the deplorable conditions in Louisiana. [Alfred] Fairfax sent a detailed account of the bulldozing in Tensas Parish to President Hayes. He listed the names of thirteen murdered Blacks and the circumstances surrounding their deaths. From Caddo Parish, R.J. Cromwell, president of the Negro Cooperative Aid Association, also wrote to Hayes. Five days after the election, he said, Blacks were still being killed and Shreveport was full of refugees from the countryside.21 Henry Adams described the outrages in Caddo and Bossier parishes to Attorney General Charles Devens, closing his letter with a plea for emigration.

  • 21 R.J. Cromwell to President Hayes, Shreveport, Louisiana, [about November 10, 1878] Record Group 60, Department of Justice Source – Chronological Files, President, box 6
  • P.170, Exodusters – Nell Irvin Painter, ISBN 0-393-00951-3



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