Between the mid-1870’s and the mid-1880’s [Benjamin “Pap”] Singleton’s migrationist solutions hardened as the difficulties arising from racial issues grew more pervasive. In 1876 it seemed as though leaving the land of slavery would mitigate racial tensions (especially in their economic manifestations) sufficiently for Blacks at least to survive. Ten years later, even with the migration to Kansas, racial problems had multiplied to the extent that they no longer seemed solvable within the bounds of this country. The elaboration of the solutions matched the increasing obstinacy of the problem. But a people whose resources were unequal to the more modest tasks of the 1870s were even less able to come to terms with the racism of the 1880s. The chronic lack of money, which had complicated the move to Kansas, blocked a move across the ocean, and all the back-to-Africa movements of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries would finally founder on this stumbling block.
- P.130, Exodusters – Nell Irvin Painter, ISBN 0-393-00951-3